U.S. District Court Judge Ketanji Brown Jackson of the District of Columbia has issued a detailed memorandum opinion explaining the reasoning behind her May 30, 2020 order granting summary judgment invalidating portions of the National Labor Relations Board’s (NLRB) revised rules for representation case elections. AFL-CIO v. NLRB, No. 20-CV-0675 (June 7, 2020)

The key issue in the case concerned whether the 2019 election rule amendments promulgated by the NLRB were “substantive” rules affecting individuals’ rights or were merely “procedural.” Under the Administrative Procedures Act, a “substantive” rule can be amended only through a time-consuming process of published notice, public comment, and agency review before the new rule can be implemented. “Procedural” rules can be promulgated more efficiently, without the notice-and-comment period.

The new election rule amendments the NLRB hoped to promulgate in full primarily altered certain timelines and enabled resolution of significant issues affecting voter eligibility and unit configuration before employees cast votes (as opposed to after, which is how the 2014 rules handled the issue). The NLRB characterized all amendments as merely procedural changes to promote finality and more efficient resolution in the election process. As such, the NLRB declined to utilize the lengthy notice-and-comment process.

The AFL-CIO asserted that certain portions of the new election rule substantively affected employee rights, and thus were invalid due to the failure to use the notice-and-comment procedure.

Although Judge Jackson acknowledged the legal distinction between “substantive” and “procedural” rules is a “very murky area,” she granted the AFL-CIO summary judgment. The Judge held that sections of the new rule were “substantive,” repeatedly stating (among other things) that the rules could affect the process of unionization.

Having ruled parts of the rule unlawful, the Judge remanded the rule to the NLRB. The Board could have decided to shelve the new rule in its entirety, but it chose to implement those parts not found to be unlawful. For a more detailed review of the sections of the new rule that the Judge found to be unlawful and those that were not invalidated by her ruling, see Despite Court Ruling, NLRB Implements Much of New Election Rule.

The NLRB has stated that it intends to file an appeal with the U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in Washington, D.C. We will continue to monitor and report on developments.

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Photo of Thomas V. Walsh Thomas V. Walsh

Tom Walsh is a Principal in the White Plains, New York, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He received a B.A., summa cum laude, from Long Island University and his Juris Doctor from St. John’s University. He is the author of “Recent Developments…

Tom Walsh is a Principal in the White Plains, New York, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He received a B.A., summa cum laude, from Long Island University and his Juris Doctor from St. John’s University. He is the author of “Recent Developments in the Weingarten Doctrine, The Board Shifts to the Right,” for the St. John’s University Journal of Legal Commentary. He is also co-author of the Atlantic Legal Foundation’s series “Leveling the Playing Field – What Charter School Leaders Need to Know About Union Organizing.” Mr. Walsh is a member of the New York State Bar Association and of the American Bar Association, and participates in the labor and employment law sections of both organizations.

Photo of Howard M. Bloom Howard M. Bloom

Howard M. Bloom is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He has practiced labor and employment law representing exclusively employers for more than 36 years.

Mr. Bloom counsels clients in a variety of industries on labor law issues.

Howard M. Bloom is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He has practiced labor and employment law representing exclusively employers for more than 36 years.

Mr. Bloom counsels clients in a variety of industries on labor law issues. He trains and advises executives, managers and supervisors on union awareness and positive employee relations, and assists employers in connection with union card-signing efforts, traditional union representation and corporate campaigns, and union decertification campaigns. He also represents clients at the National Labor Relations Board in connection with bargaining unit issues, objections and challenges, as well as unfair labor practice investigations and trials. Mr. Bloom also has been the spokesperson at countless first and successor contract collective bargaining negotiations, and regularly advises on collective bargaining agreement administration issues, including grievance/arbitration issues.

Mr. Bloom has appeared before the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, several U.S. District Courts, the National Labor Relations Board, the Massachusetts Labor Relations Commission, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination.

Mr. Bloom speaks frequently to employer groups on a wide range of labor and employment law topics. He also has written extensively on labor and employment law for a variety of publications, including New England Business magazine, The Boston Globe and the Boston Business Journal. He also is editor of and a frequent contributor to the Jackson Lewis Labor & Collective Bargaining Blog.

While attending law school, he was the Executive Editor of The Advocate: the Suffolk University Law School Journal and President of the Student Bar Association.

Mr. Bloom is a diehard baseball fan. His first book, The Baseball Uncyclopedia: A Highly Opinionated Myth-Busting Guide to the Great American Game, was published in February 2006.

Photo of Jonathan J. Spitz Jonathan J. Spitz

Jonathan J. Spitz is a Principal in the Atlanta, Georgia office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and he is the national co-Coordinator of the Firm’s Collegiate and Professional Sports industry group.

Mr. Spitz coordinates Jackson Lewis’ labor practice for the Southeast region of the…

Jonathan J. Spitz is a Principal in the Atlanta, Georgia office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and he is the national co-Coordinator of the Firm’s Collegiate and Professional Sports industry group.

Mr. Spitz coordinates Jackson Lewis’ labor practice for the Southeast region of the United States. He understands the practical and operational needs of clients, helping design pragmatic strategies to minimize risk and maximize performance. He was selected as a “Leader in the Field” by Chambers USA in 2009 and 2010.

He has represented management in numerous counter-organizing drives and participated in dozens of unfair labor practice proceedings, discrimination charges and other matters before the National Labor Relations Board, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and various federal and state administrative agencies, as well as in collective bargaining, arbitration and in employment litigation before state and federal courts. Mr. Spitz regularly counsels employers in employee relations and discipline and discharge matters, and also assists employers in drafting employment policies and in complying with the Family and Medical Leave Act, drug testing laws and regulations, the Americans with Disabilities Act and other federal and state employment laws.

Mr. Spitz has extensive experience in assisting employers to create union and litigation avoidance strategies suitable to the individual organization, values and industry. He has led teams conducting multi-facility labor vulnerability assessments and has advised employers in responding to corporate campaigns and demands for card check and neutrality.

Mr. Spitz is a contributing author of Employer’s Guide to Union Organizing Campaigns, Aspen Publishers, 2007. In addition, he has authored many articles regarding labor and employment law issues which have appeared in national trade publications.

Mr. Spitz is admitted to practice in the Second, Fourth, Sixth, Eleventh and District of Columbia Circuit Courts of Appeals; the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia; and the Georgia Supreme Court.

He received his Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, from Tufts University in 1990. He earned his J.D. from Emory University in 1993