Peter B. Robb, the General Counsel (GC) of the National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) has issued a Memorandum setting forth summaries of NLRB decisions about unionized employers’ duty to bargain in emergency situations. Memorandum GC 20-04 “Case Summaries Pertaining to the Duty to Bargain in Emergency Situations” (March 27, 2020). The Memorandum was issued in light of the many issues that have arisen about the rights and obligations of employers and labor organizations because of the coronavirus. According to the GC, those issues have arisen “in light of responsive measures taken by employers to contain the virus. Sometimes these measures have been taken out of prudence; other times they have been required by state, local or federal orders.”

Acknowledging that the virus presents “an unprecedented situation,” the Memorandum does not provide advice to unionized employers and unions. Instead, it is an attempt by the GC to educate them about NLRB decisions “in which the Board considered the duty to bargain during emergencies” that may be relevant to action they intend to take. The decisions involve both public emergencies and emergencies unique to a particular employer. The Memorandum covers only cases involving the duty to bargain. It does not deal with other NLRA issues that may arise in emergency situations.

The cases cited by the GC involved layoffs and/or facility closures arising out of, among other things, a flu prevention policy, weather emergencies, a sudden reduction in the employer’s business volume, materials (logs) shortages, and a credit line discontinuance. The decisions underscore that, in order to avoid a bargaining obligation, the employer must demonstrate that “economic exigencies compel[led] prompt action.” Bottom Line Enterprises, 302 NLRB 373, 374 (1991) and that the exception is limited to “extraordinary events which are an unforeseen occurrence, having a major economic effect requiring the company to take immediate action” RBE Electronics of S.D., 320 NLRB 80, 81 (1995). In some of the included decisions, even where the NLRB decided that the failure to bargain was lawful, it also found the employer had violated the law by not offering to bargain over the effects of the decision.

Other possible defenses to the duty to bargain may exist that are beyond the scope of the GC’s Memorandum. Please contact a Jackson Lewis attorney with any questions about those defenses, the Memorandum or any other NLRB issues.

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Photo of Howard M. Bloom Howard M. Bloom

Howard M. Bloom is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He has practiced labor and employment law representing exclusively employers for more than 36 years.

Mr. Bloom counsels clients in a variety of industries on labor law issues.

Howard M. Bloom is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He has practiced labor and employment law representing exclusively employers for more than 36 years.

Mr. Bloom counsels clients in a variety of industries on labor law issues. He trains and advises executives, managers and supervisors on union awareness and positive employee relations, and assists employers in connection with union card-signing efforts, traditional union representation and corporate campaigns, and union decertification campaigns. He also represents clients at the National Labor Relations Board in connection with bargaining unit issues, objections and challenges, as well as unfair labor practice investigations and trials. Mr. Bloom also has been the spokesperson at countless first and successor contract collective bargaining negotiations, and regularly advises on collective bargaining agreement administration issues, including grievance/arbitration issues.

Mr. Bloom has appeared before the Massachusetts Supreme Judicial Court, the U.S. Court of Appeals for the District of Columbia, several U.S. District Courts, the National Labor Relations Board, the Massachusetts Labor Relations Commission, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and the Massachusetts Commission Against Discrimination.

Mr. Bloom speaks frequently to employer groups on a wide range of labor and employment law topics. He also has written extensively on labor and employment law for a variety of publications, including New England Business magazine, The Boston Globe and the Boston Business Journal. He also is editor of and a frequent contributor to the Jackson Lewis Labor & Collective Bargaining Blog.

While attending law school, he was the Executive Editor of The Advocate: the Suffolk University Law School Journal and President of the Student Bar Association.

Mr. Bloom is a diehard baseball fan. His first book, The Baseball Uncyclopedia: A Highly Opinionated Myth-Busting Guide to the Great American Game, was published in February 2006.

Photo of Jonathan J. Spitz Jonathan J. Spitz

Jonathan J. Spitz is a Principal in the Atlanta, Georgia office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and he is the national co-Coordinator of the Firm’s Collegiate and Professional Sports industry group.

Mr. Spitz coordinates Jackson Lewis’ labor practice for the Southeast region of the…

Jonathan J. Spitz is a Principal in the Atlanta, Georgia office of Jackson Lewis P.C. and he is the national co-Coordinator of the Firm’s Collegiate and Professional Sports industry group.

Mr. Spitz coordinates Jackson Lewis’ labor practice for the Southeast region of the United States. He understands the practical and operational needs of clients, helping design pragmatic strategies to minimize risk and maximize performance. He was selected as a “Leader in the Field” by Chambers USA in 2009 and 2010.

He has represented management in numerous counter-organizing drives and participated in dozens of unfair labor practice proceedings, discrimination charges and other matters before the National Labor Relations Board, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission and various federal and state administrative agencies, as well as in collective bargaining, arbitration and in employment litigation before state and federal courts. Mr. Spitz regularly counsels employers in employee relations and discipline and discharge matters, and also assists employers in drafting employment policies and in complying with the Family and Medical Leave Act, drug testing laws and regulations, the Americans with Disabilities Act and other federal and state employment laws.

Mr. Spitz has extensive experience in assisting employers to create union and litigation avoidance strategies suitable to the individual organization, values and industry. He has led teams conducting multi-facility labor vulnerability assessments and has advised employers in responding to corporate campaigns and demands for card check and neutrality.

Mr. Spitz is a contributing author of Employer’s Guide to Union Organizing Campaigns, Aspen Publishers, 2007. In addition, he has authored many articles regarding labor and employment law issues which have appeared in national trade publications.

Mr. Spitz is admitted to practice in the Second, Fourth, Sixth, Eleventh and District of Columbia Circuit Courts of Appeals; the United States District Court for the Middle District of Georgia; and the Georgia Supreme Court.

He received his Bachelor of Arts degree, cum laude, from Tufts University in 1990. He earned his J.D. from Emory University in 1993